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A comparative study on multi-agent and service-oriented microgrid automation systems from energy internet perspective

M. Tanjimuddin, P. Kannisto, P. Jafary, M. Filppula, S. Repo, and D. Hästbacka, "A comparative study on multi-agent and service-oriented microgrid automation systems from energy internet perspective", Sustainable Energy, Grids and Networks, vol. 32, p. 100856, 2022. doi:10.1016/j.segan.2022.100856

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Research project(s): DisMa


Energy internet; Multi agent system (MAS); Service oriented architecture (SOA); Microgrid; RIAPS; Arrowhead


The current advancements of energy, information, communication, and automation technologies and their integration have provided ways for the energy industry to transform into cleaner energy systems. This transition has contributed to the concept called energy internet. The recent energy technologies provide clean energy generation, storage and demand response through distributed energy resources. Information, communication, and automation technologies aim to provide supporting software tools and enabling mechanisms to automate the operation and control of those resources in a coordinated way. Thus, researchers and the software industry are developing software frameworks and platforms to support energy system automation. Commonly, most of the frameworks follow the design principles of either multi-agent systems (MAS) or service-oriented architecture (SOA). However, there are many frameworks and no straightforward criteria to select which one to implement in energy systems’ automation applications to fulfil the energy internet vision. This study provides a conceptual investigation of MAS- and SOA-based software solutions by designing a use case for microgrid application automation considering its expansion for enabling energy internet. Two software frameworks, RIAPS and Arrowhead, have been selected as the candidates of MAS and SOA from the literature study. This study shows that neither MAS or SOA approach alone might not meet the requirements of microgrid automation and energy internet. Consequently, a combined approach of MAS and SOA is proposed.